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The bioavailability of (pro) vitamin A carotenoids and maximizing the contribution of homestead food production to combating vitamin A deficiency.

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18214019

International Journal for Vitamin and Nutritional Research

Publication Date: 05/2007

Summary: An estimated 100-140 million children worldwide suffer vitamin A deficiency disorders (VADD). Strategies for combating VADD are best used in combination because they serve particular target groups and none has full coverage. Homestead food production (HFP) can contribute to combating vitamin A deficiency directly, by increasing intake of vitamin A-rich foods, and indirectly through improving health and increasing income. By the late 1990s, conversion factors for estimating vitamin A obtained from plant foods were revised from 6:1 to 12:1 (microg beta-carotene:retinol activity equivalent) by the U.S. Institute of Medicine, and by West and colleagues to 21:1 for a mixed diet (12:1 for fruits and 26:1 for vegetables). Thus, plant foods contribute less to vitamin A intake than do other sources. HFP’s contribution can be maximized by increasing the amount of vitamin A-rich food consumed, including animal source foods, choosing foods with higher vitamin A content, and improving bioavailability by adding fat, destroying the matrix of vegetables, and deworming. Since the early 1990s, HFP programs have also included nutrition education and were then generally successful in increasing vitamin A intake. However, impact on vitamin A status was not often accessed. Two examples of evaluating impact using a plausibility approach are described. It is concluded that HFP can make a valuable contribution to combating VADD, especially where dietary diversity is low and when animal husbandry and nutrition education are included. Impact can be further maximized by using program infrastructure to introduce micronutrient-rich cultivars and improved breeds, and by adding other interventions, such as deworming and micronutrient supplementation.

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Bioavailability of iron, zinc, and other trace minerals from vegetarian diets

URL: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/78/3/633S/4690005

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 09/2003

Summary: Iron and zinc are currently the trace minerals of greatest concern when considering the nutritional value of vegetarian diets. With elimination of meat and increased intake of phytate-containing legumes and whole grains, the absorption of both iron and zinc is lower with vegetarian than with nonvegetarian, diets. The health consequences of lower iron and zinc bioavailability are not clear, especially in industrialized countries with abundant, varied food supplies, where nutrition and health research has generally supported recommendations to reduce meat and increase legume and whole-grain consumption. Although it is clear that vegetarians have lower iron stores, adverse health effects from lower iron and zinc absorption have not been demonstrated with varied vegetarian diets in developed countries, and moderately lower iron stores have even been hypothesized to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Premenopausal women cannot easily achieve recommended iron intakes, as modified for vegetarians, with foods alone; however, the benefit of routine iron supplementation has not been demonstrated. It may be prudent to monitor the hemoglobin of vegetarian children and women of childbearing age. Improved assessment methods are required to determine whether vegetarians are at risk of zinc deficiency. In contrast with iron and zinc, elements such as copper appear to be adequately provided by vegetarian diets. Although the iron and zinc deficiencies commonly associated with plant-based diets in impoverished nations are not associated with vegetarian diets in wealthier countries, these nutrients warrant attention as nutritional assessment methods become more sensitive and plant-based diets receive greater emphasis.

 

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The challenge to reach nutritional adequacy for vitamin A: β-carotene bioavailability and conversion—evidence in humans

URL: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/96/5/1193S/4577160

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 10/2012

Summary: β-Carotene is an important dietary source of vitamin A for humans. However, the bioavailability and vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene are highly variable and can be affected by food- and diet-related factors, including the food matrix, food-processing techniques, size of the dose of β-carotene, and the amounts of dietary fat, fiber, vitamin A, and other carotenoids in the diet as well as by characteristics of the target population, such as vitamin A status, nutrient deficiencies, gut integrity, and genetic polymorphisms associated with β-carotene metabolism. The absorption of β-carotene from plant sources ranges from 5% to 65% in humans. Vitamin A equivalency ratios for β-carotene to vitamin A from plant sources range from 3.8:1 to 28:1, by weight. Vitamin A equivalency ratios for β-carotene from biofortified Golden Rice or biofortified maize are 3.8:1 and 6.5:1, respectively, and are lower than ratios for vegetables that have more complex food matrices (10:1 to 28:1). The vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene is likely to be context-specific and dependent on specific food- and diet-related factors and the health, nutritional, and genetic characteristics of human populations. Although the vitamin A equivalency of β-carotene is highly variable, the provision of vegetable and fruit sources of β-carotene has significantly increased vitamin A status in women and children in community settings in developing countries; these results support the inclusion of dietary interventions with plant sources of β-carotene as a strategy for increasing vitamin A status in populations at risk of deficiency.

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Meat and Nicotinamide: A Causal Role in Human Evolution, History, and Demographics

URL: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Meat-and-Nicotinamide%3A-A-Causal-Role-in-Human-and-Williams-Hill/9035affefd17d929ae006c83984f7eb51b063c21

International Journal of Tryptophan Research

Publication Date: 03/2017

Summary: Hunting for meat was a critical step in all animal and human evolution. A key brain-trophic element in meat is vitamin B3 / nicotinamide. The supply of meat and nicotinamide steadily increased from the Cambrian origin of animal predators ratcheting ever larger brains. This culminated in the 3-million-year evolution of Homo sapiens and our overall demographic success. We view human evolution, recent history, and agricultural and demographic transitions in the light of meat and nicotinamide intake. A biochemical and immunological switch
is highlighted that affects fertility in the u2018de novou2019 tryptophan-to-kynurenine-nicotinamide u2018immune toleranceu2019 pathway. Longevity relates to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide consumer pathways. High meat intake correlates with moderate fertility, high intelligence, good health, and longevity with consequent population stability, whereas low meat/high cereal intake (short of starvation) correlates with high fertility, disease, and population booms and busts. Too high a meat intake and fertility falls below replacement levels. Reducing variances in meat consumption might help stabilise population growth and improve human capital.

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Menaquinone-4 Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in MG6 Mouse Microglia-Derived Cells by Inhibiting the NF-κB Signaling Pathway

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6540242/

Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

 Publication Date: 05/2019

 Summary: Alzheimer’s disease is associated with glial inflammation. In a rat model, MK-4, a subtype of Vitamin K2, reduced the inflammatory response of glial cells to LPS exposure.

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Vitamin D deficiency in mothers, neonates and children

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28179126/

Journal: The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Publication Date: 01/2018

Summary: Vitamin D deficiency mainly occurs if strict vegetarian diet is followed as mostly the source of vitamin D is animal based. Low vitamin D levels results in increased possibility of gestational diabetes among pregnant women, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia in infants, and mothers may suffer bone impairment, osteoporosis, hypocalcaemia, and hypertension. Vitamin D deficiency is directly linked with severe complication in mothers and neonates, causing rickets, poor fetal growth and infantile eczema in neonates.

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The role of dietary creatine

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00726-016-2188-1#citeas

Journal: Amino Acids

Publication Date: 08/2016

Summary: Review of the dietary requirements and sources of creatine. Discusses variations in amount of creatine in human diet across different populations and historically. Reviews animal studies on effects of creatine supplementation on fatty liver and intestinal permeability.

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Status of 25(OH)D levels in pregnancy: A study from the North Eastern part of India

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23565444/

Journal: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

 Publication Date: 12/2012

Summary: Study of Vitamin D levels in pregnant Indian women. Vitamin D deficient women were significantly more likely to be vegetarian

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Protective effect of high protein and calcium intake on the risk of hip fracture in the Framingham offspring cohort

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20662074/

Journal: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

Publication Date: 12/2010

Summary: Middle-aged men and women show higher animal protein intake coupled with calcium intake of 800 mg/day or more may protect against hip fracture, whereas the effect appears reversed for those with lower calcium intake

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Acid diet (high-meat protein) effects on calcium metabolism and bone health

URL: https://journals.lww.com/co-clinicalnutrition/Abstract/2010/11000/Acid_diet__high_meat_protein__effects_on_calcium.16.aspx?fbclid=IwAR2j-8TzaKccuJsGygQfBrbJQo-l4XuVXzwJXs1Zea4h2Q12tiB31cesJaY

Journal: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

 Publication Date: 11/2010

Summary: Review of the effects of high meat protein diet on calcium metabolism and bone health. Long term high protein intake increases bone mineral density and reduces fractures.