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Important roles of dietary taurine, creatine, carnosine, anserine and 4-hydroxyproline in human nutrition and health

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00726-020-02823-6

Journal: Amino Acids

Publication Date: 2/2020

Summary: Taurine (a sulfur-containing β-amino acid), creatine (a metabolite of arginine, glycine and methionine), carnosine (a dipeptide; β-alanyl-L-histidine), and 4-hydroxyproline (an imino acid; also often referred to as an amino acid) were discovered in cattle, and the discovery of anserine (a methylated product of carnosine; β-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine) also originated with cattle. These five nutrients are highly abundant in beef, and have important physiological roles in anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory reactions, as well as neurological, muscular, retinal, immunological and cardiovascular function. Of particular note, taurine, carnosine, anserine, and creatine are absent from plants, and hydroxyproline is negligible in many plant-source foods. Consumption of 30 g dry beef can fully meet daily physiological needs of the healthy 70-kg adult human for taurine and carnosine, and can also provide large amounts of creatine, anserine and 4-hydroxyproline to improve human nutrition and health, including metabolic, retinal, immunological, muscular, cartilage, neurological, and cardiovascular health. The present review provides the public with the much-needed knowledge of nutritionally and physiologically significant amino acids, dipeptides and creatine in animal-source foods (including beef). Dietary taurine, creatine, carnosine, anserine and 4-hydroxyproline are beneficial for preventing and treating obesity, cardiovascular dysfunction, and ageing-related disorders, as well as inhibiting tumorigenesis, improving skin and bone health, ameliorating neurological abnormalities, and promoting well being in infants, children and adults. Furthermore, these nutrients may promote the immunological defense of humans against infections by bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses (including coronavirus) through enhancing the metabolism and functions of monocytes, macrophages, and other cells of the immune system. Red meat (including beef) is a functional food for optimizing human growth, development and health.

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The Effects of a High-Protein Diet on Bone Mineral Density in Exercise-Trained Women: A 1-Year Investigation

URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2411-5142/3/4/62

Journal: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology

 Publication Date: 12/2018

 Summary: Exercise-trained female subjects that consume a diet that is approximately three times greater than the RDA for protein experience no harmful effects on bone mineral density or content. Nor were there any harmful effects on renal function.

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Changes in Kidney Function Do Not Differ between Healthy Adults Consuming Higher- Compared with Lower- or Normal-Protein Diets: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6236074/

Journal: Journal of Nutrition

 Publication Date: 11/2018

Summary: Our analysis indicates that HP intakes do not adversely influence kidney function on GFR in healthy adults

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The Association Between Protein Intake by Source and Osteoporotic Fracture in Older Men: A Prospective Cohort Study

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27943394/

Journal: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

 Publication Date: 12/2016

Summary: Men with high protein intake (particularly high animal protein intake) as a percentage of TEI have a lower risk of major osteoporotic fracture

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Remission of pre-diabetes to normal glucose tolerance in obese adults with high protein versus high carbohydrate diet: randomized control trial

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5093372/?fbclid=IwAR0FS5XHXENG3-VpU3cqB4RasjvBfjMKHklJSnZDg4a6Ud0UyETsM4qBnKU

Journal: BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care

Publication Date: 09/2016

 Summary: This is the first dietary intervention feeding study, to the best of our knowledge, to report 100% remission of pre-diabetes with a HP diet and significant improvement in metabolic parameters and anti-inflammatory effects compared with a HC diet at 6 months.

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A High Protein Diet Has No Harmful Effects: A One-Year Crossover Study in Resistance-Trained Males

URL: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnme/2016/9104792/

Journal: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism

 Publication Date: 09/2016

Summary: In male subjects with several years of experience with resistance training, chronic consumption of a diet high in protein had no harmful effects on any measures of health. Furthermore, there was no change in body weight, fat mass, or lean body mass despite eating more total calories and protein.

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Higher Protein Intake Is Associated with Higher Lean Mass and Quadriceps Muscle Strength in Adult Men and Women

URL: https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/145/7/1569/4616773

Journal: The Journal of Nutrition

Publication Date: 07/2015

 Summary: Our findings suggest that maintaining adequate protein intake with age may help preserve muscle mass and strength in adult men and women. Dietary protein types may differentially affect muscle mass and strength. Whether PP is a marker of dietary quality or has a direct effect on muscle strength (independent of lean mass) needs to be further clarified.

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The Skeletal Muscle Anabolic Response to Plant- versus Animal-Based Protein Consumption

URL: https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/145/9/1981/4585688

Journal: Journal of Nutrition

Publication Date: 09/2015

Summary: A review of the muscle protein synthesis response to ingestion of various protein forms. Plant based proteins show lower MPS when compared to animal based protein sources

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Protein-enriched diet, with the use of lean red meat, combined with progressive resistance training enhances lean tissue mass and muscle strength and reduces circulating IL-6 concentrations in elderly women: a cluster randomized controlled trial

URL: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/99/4/899/4637870

Journal: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 04/2014

Summary: 100 elderly women were randomized to a high protein diet supplemented with lean red meat combined with progressive resistance training versus progressive resistance training with a control diet. Lean tissue mass and strenghth increased more in the meat supplemented group. IGF-1 increase more and IL-6 decreased more in the meat supplemented group

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Effects of energy-restricted high-protein, low-fat compared with standard-protein, low-fat diets: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

URL: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/96/6/1281/4571449

Journal: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 12/2012

Summary: Compared with an energy-restricted SP diet, an isocalorically prescribed HP diet provides modest benefits for reductions in body weight, FM, and triglycerides and for mitigating reductions in FFM and REE.