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The Effects of Vegetable and Animal Protein Diets on Calcium, Urate and Oxalate Excretion

URL:  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1464-410X.1982.tb13602.x

Journal: British Journal of Urology

Publication Date: 12/1982

Summary: Meat eating subjects were compared to vegetarians. Higher protein intake, particulary animal protein, was linked to higher urinary calcium excretion. Higher calcium intake was linked to decreased oxalate excretion. Higher vegetable protein intake, but not meat protein intake, was linked to higher urinary oxalate excretion.

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The carnivore connection: dietary carbohydrate in the evolution of NIDDM.

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7895958

Journal: Diabetologia.

 Publication Date: 12/1994

 Summary: We postulate a critical role for the quantity and quality of dietary carbohydrate in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Our primate ancestors ate a high-carbohydrate diet and the brain and reproductive tissues evolved a specific requirement for glucose as a source of fuel. But the Ice Ages which dominated the last two million years of human evolution brought a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet. Certain metabolic adaptations were therefore necessary to accommodate the low glucose intake. Studies in both humans and experimental animals indicate that the adaptive (phenotypic) response to low-carbohydrate intake is insulin resistance. This provides the clue that insulin resistance is the mechanism for coping with a shortage of dietary glucose. We propose that the low-carbohydrate carnivorous diet would have disadvantaged reproduction in insulin-sensitive individuals and positively selected for individuals with insulin resistance. Natural selection would therefore result in a high proportion of people with genetically-determined insulin resistance. Other factors, such as geographic isolation, have contributed to further increases in the prevalence of the genotype in some population groups. Europeans may have a low incidence of diabetes because they were among the first to adopt agriculture and their diet has been high in carbohydrate for 10,000 years. The selection pressure for insulin resistance (i.e., a low-carbohydrate diet) was therefore relaxed much sooner in Caucasians than in other populations. Hence the prevalence of genes producing insulin resistance should be lower in the European population and any other group exposed to high-carbohydrate intake for a sufficiently long period of time.

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The Effect of an Exclusive Meat Diet Lasting One Year on the Carbohydrate Tolerance of Two Normal Men

URL: http://www.jbc.org/content/83/3/747.full.pdf

Journal of Biological Chemistry

Publication Date: 06/1929

Summary: This publication reviews the effects on the carbohydrate tolerance of two men after consuming a diet of only meat for 1 year.  Dr. Vilhjalmur Stefansson spent over 11 years in arctic exploration, during 9 years of which he lived almost exclusively on meat. Stimulated by this experience, Stefansson and Andersen, the latter a member of one of the expeditions, voluntarily agreed to eat nothing but meat for 1 year while they continued their usual activities in the temperate climate of New York.

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Prolonged Meat Diets with a Study of Kidney Function and Ketosis

URL:http://www.jbc.org/content/87/3/651.full.pdf

Journal of Biological Chemistry

Publication Date: 02/1930

Summary: This publication reviews the metabolic effects of consuming a diet of only meat for 1 year.  Dr. Vilhjalmur Stefansson spent over 11 years in arctic exploration, during 9 years of which he lived almost exclusively on meat. Stimulated by this experience, Stefansson and Andersen, the latter a member of one of the expeditions, voluntarily agreed to eat nothing but meat for 1 year while they continued their usual activities in the temperate climate of New York.