Mortality

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Meat intake and cause-specific mortality: a pooled analysis of Asian prospective cohort studies

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3778858/

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 10/2013

Summary: Ecological data indicate an increase in meat intake in Asian countries; however, our pooled analysis did not provide evidence of a higher risk of mortality for total meat intake and provided evidence of an inverse association with red meat, poultry, and fish/seafood. Red meat intake was inversely associated with CVD mortality in men and with cancer mortality in women in Asian countries.

Processed meat intake and chronic disease morbidity and mortality: An overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6797176/

PLoS One

Publication Date: 10/2019

Summary: Despite the nutritional value of meat, a large volume of reviews and meta-analyses suggests that processed meat intake is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases. However, assessments of the quality of these published reviews internal validity are generally lacking. We systematically reviewed and assessed the quality alongside summarizing the results of previously published systematic reviews and meta-analyses that examined the association between processed meat intake and cancers, type II diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Reviews and meta-analyses published until May 2018 were identified through a systematic literature search in the databases MEDLINE and EMBASE, and reference lists of included reviews. The quality of the systematic reviews and meta-analyses was assessed using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR). All eligible reviews had to comply with two quality requirements: providing sufficient information on quality assessment of the primary studies and a comprehensive search. The results were summarized for T2D, CVD, and each of the different cancer types. The certainty in the estimates of the individual outcomes was rated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) method. In total, 22 systematic reviews were eligible and thus included in this review. More than 100 reviews were excluded because quality assessment of the primary studies had not been performed. The AMSTAR score of the included reviews ranged from 5 to 8 indicating moderate quality. Overall, the quality assessments of primary studies of the reviews are generally lacking; the scientific quality of the systematic reviews reporting positive associations between processed meat intake and risk of various cancers, T2D and CVD is moderate, and the results from case-control studies suggest more often a positive association than the results from cohort studies. The overall certainty in the evidence was very low across all individual outcomes, due to serious risk of bias and imprecision.

Association between hyperinsulinemia and increased risk of cancer death in non-obese and obese people: A population‐based observational study

URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ijc.30729 Journal: Cancer Epidemiology Publication Date: 08/2017 Summary: Review of NHANES database. Among all study participants, cancer mortality was significantly higher in those with hyperinsulinemia than in those without hyperinsulinemia. Similarly, among non-obese participants, multivariable analysis showed that cancer mortality was significantly higher in those with hyperinsulinemia than in those without.

The association of lean and fat mass with all-cause mortality in older adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study

URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0939475316301016

Journal: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases

 Publication Date: 11/2016

 Summary: Greater lean tissue mass is associated with improved cardiovascular and overall mortality in the elderly. The lowest levels of fat tissue mass are linked with adverse prognosis, but the highest levels show no significant mortality protection. Prevention efforts in the elderly frail may be best targeted toward improvements in lean muscle mass.

Is the use of cholesterol in mortality risk algorithms in clinical guidelines valid? Ten years prospective data from the Norwegian HUNT 2 study

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21951982 Journal: Journal of Evaluation Clinical Practice  Publication Date: 02/2012 Summary: Our study provides an updated epidemiological indication of possible errors in the CVD risk algorithms of many clinical guidelines. If our findings are generalizable, clinical and public health recommendations regarding the 'dangers' of cholesterol should be revised. This is especially true for women, for whom moderately elevated cholesterol (by current standards) may prove to be not only harmless but even beneficial.

The association between lipid levels and the risks of incident myocardial infarction, stroke, and total mortality: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15450039?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DefaultReportPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum Journal: Journal of the American Geriatric Society  Publication Date: 10/2004 Summary: In this population-based study of older adults, most lipid measures were weakly associated with cardiovascular events. The association between low HDL-C and increased MI risk was nonetheless strong and consistent.

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