Journal: The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Publication Date: 01/2018
Summary: Vitamin D deficiency mainly occurs if strict vegetarian diet is followed as mostly the source of vitamin D is animal based. Low vitamin D levels results in increased possibility of gestational diabetes among pregnant women, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia in infants, and mothers may suffer bone impairment, osteoporosis, hypocalcaemia, and hypertension. Vitamin D deficiency is directly linked with severe complication in mothers and neonates, causing rickets, poor fetal growth and infantile eczema in neonates.
Journal: Food and Nutritional Bulletin
Publication Date: 09/2011
Summary: Over 3100 infants and toddlers from low income areas were studied. Increased meat consumption was associated with a lower risk of stunting.
Journal: BJUI International
Publication Date: 08/2008
Summary: As vegetarians have a greater exposure to phytoestrogens than do omnivores, these results support the possibility that phytoestrogens have a deleterious effect on the developing male reproductive system.
Journal: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Publication Date: 01/2008
Summary: Infants and young children receiving a vegetarian diet should receive a sufficient amount of breast milk or formula and dairy products. Infants and young children should not be fed a vegan diet.
Journal: European Journal of Pediatrics
Publication Date: 04/2005
Summary: Case report of severe vitamin deficiency and failure to thrive in a breast fed infant of a vegan mother
Journal: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Publication Date: 05/1994
Summary: This study demonstrates that vegetarians give birth to infants with less DHA in their plasma and cord artery phospholipids but this did not appear to be independently related to the outcome of pregnancy.
Journal: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Publication Date: 09/1988
Summary: The growth and development of children born of vegan mothers and reared on a vegan diet has been studied longitudinally: All of the children were breast-fed for the first 6 mo of life and in most cases well into the second year of life. The majority of children grew and developed normally but they did tend to be smaller in stature and lighter in weight than standards for the general population.
Journal: Clinical Pediatrics
Publication Date: 04/1986
Summary: Case report of breast fed infant of vegetarian mother that developed severe vitamin B12 deficiency