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Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum

URL: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/87/1/44/4633256

Journal: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 01/2008

Summary: Altering the macronutrient composition of the diet influences hunger and satiety. Studies have compared high- and low-protein diets, but there are few data on carbohydrate content and ketosis on motivation to eat and ad libitum intake. We aimed to compare the hunger, appetite, and weight-loss responses to a high-protein, low-carbohydrate [(LC) ketogenic] and those to a high-protein, medium-carbohydrate [(MC) nonketogenic] diet in obese men feeding ad libitum. Seventeen obese men were studied in a residential trial; food was provided daily. Subjects were offered 2 high-protein (30% of energy) ad libitum diets, each for a 4-wk period-an LC (4% carbohydrate) ketogenic diet and an MC (35% carbohydrate) diet-randomized in a crossover design. Body weight was measured daily, and ketosis was monitored by analysis of plasma and urine samples. Hunger was assessed by using a computerized visual analogue system. Ad libitum energy intakes were lower with the LC diet than with the MC diet [P=0.02; SE of the difference (SED): 0.27] at 7.25 and 7.95 MJ/d, respectively. Over the 4-wk period, hunger was significantly lower (P=0.014; SED: 1.76) and weight loss was significantly greater (P=0.006; SED: 0.62) with the LC diet (6.34 kg) than with the MC diet (4.35 kg). The LC diet induced ketosis with mean 3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations of 1.52 mmol/L in plasma (P=0.036 from baseline; SED: 0.62) and 2.99 mmol/L in urine (P<0.001 from baseline; SED: 0.36). In the short term, high-protein, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets reduce hunger and lower food intake significantly more than do high-protein, medium-carbohydrate nonketogenic diets.

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A carbohydrate-restricted diet during resistance training promotes more favorable changes in body composition and markers of health in obese women with and without insulin resistance

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21673483

Journal: The Physician and Sports Medicine

Publication Date: 05/2011

Summary: To determine whether sedentary obese women with elevated levels of homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) insulin resistance (ie, > 3.5) experience greater benefits from an exercise + higher-carbohydrate (HC) or carbohydrate-restricted weight loss program than women with lower HOMA levels. 221 women (age, 46.5 ± 12 years; body weight, 90.3 ± 16 kg; body mass index, 33.8 ± 5 kg/m(2)) participated in a 10-week supervised exercise and weight loss program. The fitness program involved 30 minutes of circuit-style resistance training 3 days per week. Subjects were prescribed low-fat (30%) isoenergetic diets that consisted of 1200 kcals per day for 1 week (phase 1) and 1600 kcals per day for 9 weeks (phase 2) with HC or higher protein (HP). Fasting blood samples, body composition, anthropometry, resting energy expenditure, and fitness measurements were obtained at 0 and 10 weeks. Subjects were retrospectively stratified into lower (LH) or higher (HH) than 3.5 HOMA groups. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures and are presented as mean ± standard deviation changes from baseline. Baseline HOMA levels in the LH group were significantly lower than those in the HH group (LH, 0.6 ± 0.7; HH, 6.3 ± 3.4; P = 0.001). Diet and training significantly decreased body weight (-3.5 ± 3 kg), fat mass (-2.7 ± 3 kg), blood glucose (-3%), total cholesterol (-4.5%), low-density lipoproteins (-5%), triglycerides (-5.9%), systolic blood pressure (-2.6%), and waist circumference (-3.7%), while increasing peak aerobic capacity (7.3%). Subjects in the HP group experienced greater weight loss (-4.4 ± 3.6 kg vs -2.6 ± 2.9 kg), fat loss (-3.4 ± 2.7 kg vs -1.7 ± 2.0 kg), reductions in serum glucose (3% vs 2%), and decreases in serum leptin levels (-30.8% vs -10.8%) than those in the HC group. Participants in the HH (-14.1%) and HP-HH (-21.6%) groups observed the greatest reduction in serum blood glucose. A carbohydrate-restricted diet promoted more favorable changes in weight loss, fat loss, and markers of health in obese women who initiated an exercise program compared with a diet higher in carbohydrate. Additionally, obese women who initiated training and dieting with higher HOMA levels experienced greater reductions in blood glucose following an HP diet.

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Remission of pre-diabetes to normal glucose tolerance in obese adults with high protein versus high carbohydrate diet: randomized control trial

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5093372/?fbclid=IwAR0FS5XHXENG3-VpU3cqB4RasjvBfjMKHklJSnZDg4a6Ud0UyETsM4qBnKU

Journal: BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care

Publication Date: 09/2016

 Summary: This is the first dietary intervention feeding study, to the best of our knowledge, to report 100% remission of pre-diabetes with a HP diet and significant improvement in metabolic parameters and anti-inflammatory effects compared with a HC diet at 6 months.

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Effects of energy-restricted high-protein, low-fat compared with standard-protein, low-fat diets: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

URL: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/96/6/1281/4571449

Journal: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 12/2012

Summary: Compared with an energy-restricted SP diet, an isocalorically prescribed HP diet provides modest benefits for reductions in body weight, FM, and triglycerides and for mitigating reductions in FFM and REE.

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Comparative effects of low-carbohydrate high-protein versus low-fat diets on the kidney

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/22653255/

Journal: CJASN

 Publication Date: 07/2012

Summary: In healthy obese individuals, a low-carbohydrate high-protein weight-loss diet over 2 years was not associated with noticeably harmful effects on GFR, albuminuria, or fluid and electrolyte balance compared with a low-fat diet.

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Increased Consumption of Dairy Foods and Protein during Diet- and Exercise-Induced Weight Loss Promotes Fat Mass Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Overweight and Obese Premenopausal Women

URL: https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/141/9/1626/4630649

Journal: The Journal of Nutrition

 Publication Date: 09/2011

 Summary: diet- and exercise-induced weight loss with higher protein and increased dairy product intakes promotes more favorable body composition changes in women characterized by greater total and visceral fat loss and lean mass gain.

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Protective effect of high protein and calcium intake on the risk of hip fracture in the Framingham offspring cohort

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20662074/

Journal: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

Publication Date: 12/2010

Summary: Middle-aged men and women show higher animal protein intake coupled with calcium intake of 800 mg/day or more may protect against hip fracture, whereas the effect appears reversed for those with lower calcium intake

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Acid diet (high-meat protein) effects on calcium metabolism and bone health

URL: https://journals.lww.com/co-clinicalnutrition/Abstract/2010/11000/Acid_diet__high_meat_protein__effects_on_calcium.16.aspx?fbclid=IwAR2j-8TzaKccuJsGygQfBrbJQo-l4XuVXzwJXs1Zea4h2Q12tiB31cesJaY

Journal: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

 Publication Date: 11/2010

Summary: Review of the effects of high meat protein diet on calcium metabolism and bone health. Long term high protein intake increases bone mineral density and reduces fractures.

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A High-Protein Diet With Resistance Exercise Training Improves Weight Loss and Body Composition in Overweight and Obese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

URL: https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/33/5/969.long

Journal: Diabetes Care

 Publication Date: 05/2010

Summary: A total of 83 men and women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to an isocaloric, energy-restricted diet of either standard carbohydrate or high protein, with or without supervised RT for 16 weeks. An energy-restricted HP diet combined with RT achieved greater weight loss and more favorable changes in body composition. All treatments had similar improvements in glycemic control and CVD risk markers.

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Acid diet (high-meat protein) effects on calcium metabolism and bone health

URL: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/pubag/downloadPDF.xhtml?id=58087&content=PDF

Journal: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

 Publication Date: 01/2010

 Summary: On the basis of recent findings, consuming protein (including that from meat) higher than current Recommended Dietary Allowance for protein is beneficial to calcium utilization and bone health, especially in the elderly. A high-protein diet with adequate calcium and fruits and vegetables is important for bone health and osteoporosis 

prevention.