Diabetes

Management of Type 1 Diabetes With a Very Low–Carbohydrate Diet

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6034614/

Journal: Pediatrics

Publication Date: 06/2018

Summary: To evaluate glycemic control among children and adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) who consume a very low–carbohydrate diet (VLCD). We conducted an online survey of an international social media group for people with T1DM who follow a VLCD. Respondents included adults and parents of children with T1DM. We assessed current hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (primary measure), change in HbA1c after the self-reported beginning of the VLCD, total daily insulin dose, and adverse events. We obtained confirmatory data from diabetes care providers and medical records. Of 316 respondents, 131 (42%) were parents of children with T1DM, and 57% were of female sex. Suggestive evidence of T1DM (based on a 3-tier scoring system in which researchers took into consideration age and weight at diagnosis, pancreatic autoimmunity, insulin requirement, and clinical presentation) was obtained for 273 (86%) respondents. The mean age at diagnosis was 16 ± 14 years, the duration of diabetes was 11 ± 13 years, and the time following a VLCD was 2.2 ± 3.9 years. Participants had a mean daily carbohydrate intake of 36 ± 15 g. Reported mean HbA1c was 5.67% ± 0.66%. Only 7 (2%) respondents reported diabetes-related hospitalizations in the past year, including 4 (1%) for ketoacidosis and 2 (1%) for hypoglycemia. Exceptional glycemic control of T1DM with low rates of adverse events was reported by a community of children and adults who consume a VLCD. The generalizability of these findings requires further studies, including high-quality randomized controlled trials.

Long-Term Effects of a Novel Continuous Remote Care Intervention Including Nutritional Ketosis for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: A 2-Year Non-randomized Clinical Trial

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6561315/

Journal: Frontiers in Endocrinology

Publication Date: 06/2019

Summary: Studies on long-term sustainability of low-carbohydrate approaches to treat diabetes are limited. We previously reported the effectiveness of a novel digitally-monitored continuous care intervention (CCI) including nutritional ketosis in improving weight, glycemic outcomes, lipid, and liver marker changes at 1 year. Here, we assess the effects of the CCI at 2 years. An open label, non-randomized, controlled study with 262 and 87 participants with T2D were enrolled in the CCI and usual care (UC) groups, respectively. Primary outcomes were retention, glycemic control, and weight changes at 2 years. Secondary outcomes included changes in body composition, liver, cardiovascular, kidney, thyroid and inflammatory markers, diabetes medication use and disease status. Reductions from baseline to 2 years in the CCI group resulting from intent-to-treat analyses included: HbA1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, weight, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and liver alanine transaminase, and HDL-C increased. Spine bone mineral density in the CCI group was unchanged. Use of any glycemic control medication (excluding metformin) among CCI participants declined (from 55.7 to 26.8%) including insulin (-62%) and sulfonylureas (-100%). The UC group had no changes in these parameters (except uric acid and anion gap) or diabetes medication use. There was also resolution of diabetes (reversal, 53.5%; remission, 17.6%) in the CCI group but not in UC. All the reported improvements had p < 0.00012. The CCI group sustained long-term beneficial effects on multiple clinical markers of diabetes and cardiometabolic health at 2 years while utilizing less medication. The intervention was also effective in the resolution of diabetes and visceral obesity with no adverse effect on bone health.

Effects and feasibility of a prehabilitation programme incorporating a low-carbohydrate, high-fat dietary approach in patients with type 2 diabetes: A retrospective study.

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32251900

Journal: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews

Publication Date: 05/2020

Summary: We performed a retrospective study of diabetic patients undergoing a targeted multimodal prehabilitation programme to assess changes in their diabetic control and functional capacity prior to surgery. As part of the programme, patients were encouraged to follow a low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) dietary approach. We aimed to assess the feasibility and effects of this programme on our cohort of patients. From 79 patients attending prehabilitation, 17 (13 males, age (median [interquartile range]): 71 [63–79] years) had Type 2 diabetes and none had Type 1. Patients had undergone a targeted multimodal prehabilitation programme prior to surgery, which comprised supervised exercise sessions (aerobic or resistance training), nutritional education (LCHF suggestion, correct protein intake, and avoidance of processed food), psychological support and medical optimization. Weight, body mass index (BMI), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting glucose, and functional capacity were measured prior to and after prehabilitation. Data were compared with a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. There were significant improvements in HbA1c (P = 0.000), fasting glucose (P = 0.006), weight (P = 0.002), and BMI (P = 0.002). There were no significant improvements in functional capacity. We have shown that in the preoperative period, a targeted multimodal prehabilitation programme incorporating a LCHF diet improves diabetes control in patients with T2D awaiting elective surgery. Our approach is novel as a LCHF diet has not previously been utilized in patients with diabetes within this context. Prospective studies are required in the context of post-operative outcomes.

A child with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) successfully treated with the Paleolithic ketogenic diet: A 19-month insulin freedom

URL: http://www.ijcasereportsandimages.com/archive/2015/012-2015-ijcri/CR-10582-12-2015-toth/ijcri-1058212201582-toth-full-text.php

International Journal of Case Reports and Images

Publication Date: 12/2015

Summary: A nine-year-old child with T1DM who initially was on an insulin regime with high carbohydrate diet then was put on the Paleolithic ketogenic diet. Following dietary shift glucose levels normalized and he was able to discontinue insulin. No hypoglycemic episodes occurred on the diet and several other benefits were achieved including improved physical fitness, reduction of upper respiratory tract infections and eczema. Currently, he is on the diet for 19 months.

 

Dairy fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in 3 cohorts of US men and women

URL: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/110/5/1192/5550200

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 08/2019

Summary: Previous studies have examined dairy products with various fat contents in relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, although data regarding dairy fat intake per se are sparse. We aimed to evaluate the association between dairy fat intake and risk of T2D in 3 prospective cohorts. We also examined associations for isocalorically replacing dairy fat with other macronutrients. We prospectively followed 41,808 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS; 1986–2012), 65,929 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS; 1984–2012), and 89,565 women in the NHS II (1991–2013). Diet was assessed quadrennially using validated FFQs. Fat intake from dairy products and other relevant sources was expressed as percentage of total energy. Self-reported incident T2D cases were confirmed using validated supplementary questionnaires. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the HR for dairy fat intake and T2D risk. During 4,219,457 person-years of follow-up, we docu- mented 16,511 incident T2D cases. Dairy fat was not associated with risk of T2D when compared with calories from carbohydrates (HR for extreme quintiles: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.02). Replacing 5% of calories from dairy fat with other sources of animal fat or carbohydrate from refined grains was associated with a 17% (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.21) and a 4% (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) higher risk of T2D, respectively. Conversely, a 5% calorie replacement with carbohydrate from whole grains was associated with a 7% lower risk of T2D (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.98). Dairy fat intake was not associated with T2D risk in these cohort studies of US men and women when compared with calories from carbohydrate. Replacing dairy fat with carbohydrates from whole grains was associated with lower risk of T2D. Replacement with other animal fats or refined carbohydrates was associated with higher risk. 

The ‘carnivore connection’ — evolutionary aspects of insulin resistance

URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/1601351

Journal: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

 Publication Date: 03/2002

 Summary: Insulin resistance is common and is determined by physiological (aging, physical fitness), pathological (obesity) and genetic factors. The metabolic compensatory response to insulin resistance is hyperinsulinaemia, the primary purpose of which is to maintain normal glucose tolerance. The ‘carnivore connection’ postulates a critical role for the quantity of dietary protein and carbohydrate and the change in the glycaemic index of dietary carbohydrate in the evolution of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia. Insulin resistance offered survival and reproductive advantages during the Ice Ages which dominated human evolution, during which a high-protein low-carbohydrate diet was consumed. Following the end of the last Ice Age and the advent of agriculture, dietary carbohydrate increased. Although this resulted in a sharp increase in the quantity of carbohydrate consumed, these traditional carbohydrate foods had a low glycaemic index and produced only modest increases in plasma insulin. The industrial revolution changed the quality of dietary carbohydrate. The milling of cereals made starch more digestible and postprandial glycaemic and insulin responses increased 2–3 fold compared with coarsely ground flour or whole grains. This combination of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia is a common feature of many modern day diseases. Over the last 50 y the explosion of convenience and takeaway ‘fast foods’ has exposed most populations to caloric intakes far in excess of daily energy requirements and the resulting obesity has been a major factor in increasing the prevalence of insulin resistance.

Effects of Total Red Meat Consumption on Glycemic Control and Inflammation: A Systematically Searched Meta-analysis and Meta-regression of Randomized Controlled Trials (OR22-08-19)

URL: https://academic.oup.com/cdn/article/3/Supplement_1/nzz028.OR22-08-19/5516820 Journal: Current Developments in Nutrition  Publication Date: 06/2019  Summary: Consuming ≥ vs <0.5 servings/d of red meat showed greater decreases in insulin when carbohydrates were replaced with red meat but lesser decreases in HOMA-IR when macronutrient distributions were matched between intervention and control eating patterns.

Dietary carbohydrate restriction improves metabolic syndrome independent of weight loss

URL: https://insight.jci.org/articles/view/128308

Journal: JCI Insight

Publication Date: 06/2019

 Summary: Obese subjects cycled through 4 weeks each of a low, medium and high carb diet. Consistent with the perspective that MetS is a pathologic state that manifests as dietary carbohydrate intolerance, these results show that compared with eucaloric high-carbohydrate intake, LC/high-fat diets benefit MetS independent of whole-body or fat mass.

Potential effects of reduced red meat compared with increased fiber intake on glucose metabolism and liver fat content: a randomized and controlled dietary intervention study

URL: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/109/2/288/5307117

Journal: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

 Publication Date: 02/2019

Summary: Our data indicate that caloric restriction leads to a marked improvement in glucose metabolism and body-fat composition, including liver-fat content. The marked reduction in liver fat might be mediated via changes in ferritin levels. In the context of caloric restriction, there seems to be no additional beneficial impact of reduced red meat intake and increased fiber intake on the improvement in cardiometabolic risk parameters.

The Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End Products by Carnosine and Other Natural Dipeptides to Reduce Diabetic and Age‐Related Complications

URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1541-4337.12376

Journal: Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety

 Publication Date: 07/2018

 Summary: Carnosine has been shown to prevent AGE formations through reduction of blood glucose, prevention of early glycation, and even reversing previously formed AGEs.

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