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A child with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) successfully treated with the Paleolithic ketogenic diet: A 19-month insulin freedom

URL: http://www.ijcasereportsandimages.com/archive/2015/012-2015-ijcri/CR-10582-12-2015-toth/ijcri-1058212201582-toth-full-text.php

International Journal of Case Reports and Images

Publication Date: 12/2015

Summary: A nine-year-old child with T1DM who initially was on an insulin regime with high carbohydrate diet then was put on the Paleolithic ketogenic diet. Following dietary shift glucose levels normalized and he was able to discontinue insulin. No hypoglycemic episodes occurred on the diet and several other benefits were achieved including improved physical fitness, reduction of upper respiratory tract infections and eczema. Currently, he is on the diet for 19 months.

 

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Dairy fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in 3 cohorts of US men and women

URL: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/110/5/1192/5550200

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 08/2019

Summary: Previous studies have examined dairy products with various fat contents in relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, although data regarding dairy fat intake per se are sparse. We aimed to evaluate the association between dairy fat intake and risk of T2D in 3 prospective cohorts. We also examined associations for isocalorically replacing dairy fat with other macronutrients. We prospectively followed 41,808 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS; 1986–2012), 65,929 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS; 1984–2012), and 89,565 women in the NHS II (1991–2013). Diet was assessed quadrennially using validated FFQs. Fat intake from dairy products and other relevant sources was expressed as percentage of total energy. Self-reported incident T2D cases were confirmed using validated supplementary questionnaires. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the HR for dairy fat intake and T2D risk. During 4,219,457 person-years of follow-up, we docu- mented 16,511 incident T2D cases. Dairy fat was not associated with risk of T2D when compared with calories from carbohydrates (HR for extreme quintiles: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.02). Replacing 5% of calories from dairy fat with other sources of animal fat or carbohydrate from refined grains was associated with a 17% (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.21) and a 4% (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.08) higher risk of T2D, respectively. Conversely, a 5% calorie replacement with carbohydrate from whole grains was associated with a 7% lower risk of T2D (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.98). Dairy fat intake was not associated with T2D risk in these cohort studies of US men and women when compared with calories from carbohydrate. Replacing dairy fat with carbohydrates from whole grains was associated with lower risk of T2D. Replacement with other animal fats or refined carbohydrates was associated with higher risk. 

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The carnivore connection: dietary carbohydrate in the evolution of NIDDM.

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7895958

Journal: Diabetologia.

 Publication Date: 12/1994

 Summary: We postulate a critical role for the quantity and quality of dietary carbohydrate in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Our primate ancestors ate a high-carbohydrate diet and the brain and reproductive tissues evolved a specific requirement for glucose as a source of fuel. But the Ice Ages which dominated the last two million years of human evolution brought a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet. Certain metabolic adaptations were therefore necessary to accommodate the low glucose intake. Studies in both humans and experimental animals indicate that the adaptive (phenotypic) response to low-carbohydrate intake is insulin resistance. This provides the clue that insulin resistance is the mechanism for coping with a shortage of dietary glucose. We propose that the low-carbohydrate carnivorous diet would have disadvantaged reproduction in insulin-sensitive individuals and positively selected for individuals with insulin resistance. Natural selection would therefore result in a high proportion of people with genetically-determined insulin resistance. Other factors, such as geographic isolation, have contributed to further increases in the prevalence of the genotype in some population groups. Europeans may have a low incidence of diabetes because they were among the first to adopt agriculture and their diet has been high in carbohydrate for 10,000 years. The selection pressure for insulin resistance (i.e., a low-carbohydrate diet) was therefore relaxed much sooner in Caucasians than in other populations. Hence the prevalence of genes producing insulin resistance should be lower in the European population and any other group exposed to high-carbohydrate intake for a sufficiently long period of time.

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The ‘carnivore connection’ — evolutionary aspects of insulin resistance

URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/1601351

Journal: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

 Publication Date: 03/2002

 Summary: Insulin resistance is common and is determined by physiological (aging, physical fitness), pathological (obesity) and genetic factors. The metabolic compensatory response to insulin resistance is hyperinsulinaemia, the primary purpose of which is to maintain normal glucose tolerance. The ‘carnivore connection’ postulates a critical role for the quantity of dietary protein and carbohydrate and the change in the glycaemic index of dietary carbohydrate in the evolution of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia. Insulin resistance offered survival and reproductive advantages during the Ice Ages which dominated human evolution, during which a high-protein low-carbohydrate diet was consumed. Following the end of the last Ice Age and the advent of agriculture, dietary carbohydrate increased. Although this resulted in a sharp increase in the quantity of carbohydrate consumed, these traditional carbohydrate foods had a low glycaemic index and produced only modest increases in plasma insulin. The industrial revolution changed the quality of dietary carbohydrate. The milling of cereals made starch more digestible and postprandial glycaemic and insulin responses increased 2–3 fold compared with coarsely ground flour or whole grains. This combination of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia is a common feature of many modern day diseases. Over the last 50 y the explosion of convenience and takeaway ‘fast foods’ has exposed most populations to caloric intakes far in excess of daily energy requirements and the resulting obesity has been a major factor in increasing the prevalence of insulin resistance.

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Effects of Total Red Meat Consumption on Glycemic Control and Inflammation: A Systematically Searched Meta-analysis and Meta-regression of Randomized Controlled Trials (OR22-08-19)

URL: https://academic.oup.com/cdn/article/3/Supplement_1/nzz028.OR22-08-19/5516820

Journal: Current Developments in Nutrition

 Publication Date: 06/2019

 Summary: Consuming ≥ vs <0.5 servings/d of red meat showed greater decreases in insulin when carbohydrates were replaced with red meat but lesser decreases in HOMA-IR when macronutrient distributions were matched between intervention and control eating patterns.

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Dietary carbohydrate restriction improves metabolic syndrome independent of weight loss

URL: https://insight.jci.org/articles/view/128308

Journal: JCI Insight

Publication Date: 06/2019

 Summary: Obese subjects cycled through 4 weeks each of a low, medium and high carb diet. Consistent with the perspective that MetS is a pathologic state that manifests as dietary carbohydrate intolerance, these results show that compared with eucaloric high-carbohydrate intake, LC/high-fat diets benefit MetS independent of whole-body or fat mass.

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Potential effects of reduced red meat compared with increased fiber intake on glucose metabolism and liver fat content: a randomized and controlled dietary intervention study

URL: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/109/2/288/5307117

Journal: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

 Publication Date: 02/2019

Summary: Our data indicate that caloric restriction leads to a marked improvement in glucose metabolism and body-fat composition, including liver-fat content. The marked reduction in liver fat might be mediated via changes in ferritin levels. In the context of caloric restriction, there seems to be no additional beneficial impact of reduced red meat intake and increased fiber intake on the improvement in cardiometabolic risk parameters.

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The Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End Products by Carnosine and Other Natural Dipeptides to Reduce Diabetic and Age‐Related Complications

URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1541-4337.12376

Journal: Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety

 Publication Date: 07/2018

 Summary: Carnosine has been shown to prevent AGE formations through reduction of blood glucose, prevention of early glycation, and even reversing previously formed AGEs.

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l-Carnosine supplementation attenuated fasting glucose, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products, and tumor necrosis factor–α levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial

URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0271531717303652

Journal: Nutrition Research

Publication Date: 01/2018

 Summary: l-carnosine lowered fasting glucose, serum levels of triglycerides, AGEs, and tumor necrosis factor–α without changing sRAGE, IL-6, and IL-1β levels in T2D patients.

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Remission of pre-diabetes to normal glucose tolerance in obese adults with high protein versus high carbohydrate diet: randomized control trial

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5093372/?fbclid=IwAR0FS5XHXENG3-VpU3cqB4RasjvBfjMKHklJSnZDg4a6Ud0UyETsM4qBnKU

Journal: BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care

Publication Date: 09/2016

 Summary: This is the first dietary intervention feeding study, to the best of our knowledge, to report 100% remission of pre-diabetes with a HP diet and significant improvement in metabolic parameters and anti-inflammatory effects compared with a HC diet at 6 months.