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Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial

URL: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/102/3/573/4564305

Journal: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 09/2015

Summary: Heart associations recommend limited intake of sat- urated fat. However, effects of saturated fat on low-density lipopro- tein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk might depend on nutrients and specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in food.  We explored the effects of cheese and meat as sources of SFAs or isocaloric replacement with carbohydrates on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of fat and bile acids. The study was a randomized, crossover, open-label in- tervention in 14 overweight postmenopausal women. Three full- diet periods of 2-wk duration were provided separated by 2-wk washout periods. The isocaloric diets were as follows: 1) a high- cheese (96–120-g) intervention [i.e., intervention containing cheese (CHEESE)], 2) a macronutrient-matched nondairy, high- meat control [i.e., nondairy control with a high content of high-fat processed and unprocessed meat in amounts matching the satu- rated fat content from cheese in the intervention containing cheese (MEAT)], and 3) a nondairy, low-fat, high-carbohydrate control (i.e., nondairy low-fat control in which the energy from cheese fat and protein was isocalorically replaced by carbohydrates and lean meat (CARB).  The CHEESE diet caused a 5% higher high-density lipo- protein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration (P = 0.012), an 8% higher apo A-I concentration (P , 0.001), and a 5% lower apoB:apo A-I ratio (P = 0.008) than did the CARB diet. Also, the MEAT diet caused an 8% higher HDL-cholesterol concentration (P , 0.001) and a 4% higher apo A-I concentration (P = 0.033) than did the CARB diet. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apoB, and triacyl- glycerol were similar with the 3 diets. Fecal fat excretion was 1.8 and 0.9 g higher with the CHEESE diet than with CARB and MEAT diets (P , 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively) and 0.9 g higher with the MEAT diet than with the CARB diet (P = 0.005). CHEESE and MEAT diets caused higher fecal bile acid excretion than did the CARB diet (P , 0.05 and P = 0.006, respectively). The dominant type of bile acids excreted differed between CHEESE and MEAT diets.
Diets with cheese and meat as primary sources of SFAs cause higher HDL cholesterol and apo A-I and, therefore, appear to be less atherogenic than is a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. Also, our findings confirm that cheese increases fecal fat excretion.

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Efficacy of l-carnitine supplementation for management of blood lipids: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0939475319302807

Journal: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases

 Publication Date: 07/2019

 Summary: l-carnitine supplementation at doses above 2 g/d has favorable effects on patients’ lipid profiles, but is modulated on participant health and route of administration.

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The effect of l-carnitine supplementation on lipid profile and glycaemic control in adults with cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials

URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S026156141930038X

Journal: Clinical Nutrition

 Publication Date: 02/2019

 Summary: This meta-analysis showed that l-carnitine supplementation could improve lipid profile levels, particularly in doses more than 1500 mg/day. More RCTs with large sample sizes, focusing on gut microbiome profiles and dietary patterns are needed to better understand the effect of l-carnitine on patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

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Changes in blood lipid concentrations associated with changes in intake of dietary saturated fat in the context of a healthy low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet: a secondary analysis of the Diet Intervention Examining The Factors Interacting with Treatment Success (DIETFITS) trial

URL: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-abstract/109/2/433/5289643

Journal: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

 Publication Date: 02/2019

Summary: Those on a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet who increase their percentage intake of dietary saturated fat may improve their overall lipid profile provided they focus on a high-quality diet and lower their intakes of both calories and refined carbohydrates.

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Protective Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Fish Consumption Against Breast Cancer in Asian Patients: A Meta-Analysis

URL: http://journal.waocp.org/article_82369_64937ca8a2cc366c0e4a0d5d66004a96.pdf

Journal: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention

 Publication Date: 01/2019

Summary: A meta-analysis reviewing the protective effects of omega-3 from fish consumption against breast cancer in Asian women.

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Omega-6 vegetable oils as a driver of coronary heart disease: the oxidized linoleic acid hypothesis

URL: https://openheart.bmj.com/content/5/2/e000898#ref-41

Journal: Open Heart

 Publication Date: 09/2018

 Summary: Numerous lines of evidence show that the omega-6 polyunsaturated fat linoleic acid promotes oxidative stress, oxidised LDL, chronic low-grade inflammation and atherosclerosis, and is likely a major dietary culprit for causing CHD, especially when consumed in the form of industrial seed oils commonly referred to as ‘vegetable oils’.

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l-Carnosine supplementation attenuated fasting glucose, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products, and tumor necrosis factor–α levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial

URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0271531717303652

Journal: Nutrition Research

Publication Date: 01/2018

 Summary: l-carnosine lowered fasting glucose, serum levels of triglycerides, AGEs, and tumor necrosis factor–α without changing sRAGE, IL-6, and IL-1β levels in T2D patients.

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Total red meat intake of ≥0.5 servings/d does not negatively influence cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systemically searched meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27881394

Journal: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

 Publication Date: 01/2017

Summary: The results from this systematically searched meta-analysis of RCTs support the idea that the consumption of ≥0.5 servings of total red meat/d does not influence blood lipids and lipoproteins or blood pressures.

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Lipid paradox in acute myocardial infarction-the association with 30-day in-hospital mortality

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25738856

Journal: Critical Care Medicine

 Publication Date: 06/2015

Summary: Low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low triglycerides, and high Killip severity were associated with significantly higher 30-day in-hospital mortality in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction.

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Exploring the background to the cholesterol hypothesis utilizing data obtained mainly from Japan

URL: https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/381654

Journal: Ann Nutr Metab

Publication Date: 04/2015

Summary: Comprehensive review of Cholesterol-heart disease hypothesis, focusing on Japan. The cholesterol hypothesis relies on very weak data—and sometimes considerably distorted data. Indeed, many studies in Japan actually show that cholesterol plays a very positive role in health.