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Meat Supplementation Improves Growth, Cognitive, and Behavioral Outcomes in Kenyan Children

URL: https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/137/4/1119/4664672

Journal: The Journal of Nutrition

Publication Date: 4/2007

Summary: A randomized, controlled school feeding study was conducted in rural Embu District, Kenya to test for a causal link between animal-source food intake and changes in micronutrient nutrition and growth, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. Twelve primary schools were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups. Children in Standard I classes received the local plant-based dish githeri as a midmorning school snack supplemented with meat, milk, or fat added to equalize energy content in all feedings. The Control children received no feedings but participated in data collection. Main outcome measures assessed at baseline and longitudinally were 24-h food intake recall, anthropometry, cognitive function, physical activity, and behaviors during school free play. For cognitive function, the Meat group showed the steepest rate of increase on Raven’s Progressive Matrices scores and in zone-wide school end-term total and arithmetic test scores. The Plain githeri and Meat groups performed better over time than the Milk and Control groups (<P < 0.02–0.03) on arithmetic tests. The Meat group showed the greatest increase in percentage time in high levels of physical activity and in initiative and leadership behaviors compared with all other groups. For growth, in the Milk group only younger and stunted children showed a greater rate of gain in height. The Meat group showed near doubling of upper midarm muscle area, and the Milk group a smaller degree of increase. This is the first randomized, controlled feeding study to examine the effect of meat- vs. milk- vs. plant-based snacks on functional outcomes in children.

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Vitamin D deficiency in mothers, neonates and children

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28179126/

Journal: The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Publication Date: 01/2018

Summary: Vitamin D deficiency mainly occurs if strict vegetarian diet is followed as mostly the source of vitamin D is animal based. Low vitamin D levels results in increased possibility of gestational diabetes among pregnant women, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia in infants, and mothers may suffer bone impairment, osteoporosis, hypocalcaemia, and hypertension. Vitamin D deficiency is directly linked with severe complication in mothers and neonates, causing rickets, poor fetal growth and infantile eczema in neonates.

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Successful Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes and Seizures With Combined Ketogenic Diet and Insulin

URL: https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/129/2/e511

Journal: Pediatrics

 Publication Date: 02/2012

Summary: Case report of a 2 year old that presented with diabetic ketoacidosis and a history of epilepsy. She was treated with a ketogenic diet, insulin and fluids. During a 10 month follow up she had no additional seizures or episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis. 

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Meat consumption is associated with less stunting among toddlers in four diverse low-income settings

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3918945/

Journal: Food and Nutritional Bulletin

 Publication Date: 09/2011

Summary: Over 3100 infants and toddlers from low income areas were studied. Increased meat consumption was associated with a lower risk of stunting.

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Is childhood meat eating associated with better later adulthood cognition in a developing population?

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2903695/

Journal: European Journal of Epidemiology

 Publication Date: 06/2010

 Summary: Cross-sectional study of 20,086 Chinese men and women aged ≥ 50 years from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. More frequent childhood meat eating was associated with better cognition through to old age.

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A maternal vegetarian diet in pregnancy is associated with hypospadias. The ALSPAC Study Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10619956/

Journal: BJUI International

 Publication Date: 08/2008

Summary: As vegetarians have a greater exposure to phytoestrogens than do omnivores, these results support the possibility that phytoestrogens have a deleterious effect on the developing male reproductive system.

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Complementary Feeding: A Commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/18162844/

Journal: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

Publication Date: 01/2008

Summary: Infants and young children receiving a vegetarian diet should receive a sufficient amount of breast milk or formula and dairy products. Infants and young children should not be fed a vegan diet.

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Signs of impaired cognitive function in adolescents with marginal cobalamin status

URL: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/72/3/762/4729440

Journal: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 09/2000

Summary: Data on dietary intake, psychological test performance, and biochemical variables of cobalamin status were collected from 48 adolescents who consumed macrobiotic (vegan type) diets up to the age of 6 y, subsequently followed by lactovegetarian or omnivorous diets, and from 24 subjects (aged 10–18 y) who were fed omnivorous diets from birth onward. Our data suggest that cobalamin deficiency, in the absence of hematologic signs, may lead to impaired cognitive performance in adolescents.

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Growth and development of British vegan children

URL: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/48/3/822/4716540

Journal: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 09/1988

Summary: The growth and development of children born of vegan mothers and reared on a vegan diet has been studied longitudinally: All of the children were breast-fed for the first 6 mo of life and in most cases well into the second year of life. The majority of children grew and developed normally but they did tend to be smaller in stature and lighter in weight than standards for the general population.