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The Effect of an Exclusive Meat Diet Lasting One Year on the Carbohydrate Tolerance of Two Normal Men

URL: http://www.jbc.org/content/83/3/747.full.pdf

Journal of Biological Chemistry

Publication Date: 06/1929

Summary: This publication reviews the effects on the carbohydrate tolerance of two men after consuming a diet of only meat for 1 year.  Dr. Vilhjalmur Stefansson spent over 11 years in arctic exploration, during 9 years of which he lived almost exclusively on meat. Stimulated by this experience, Stefansson and Andersen, the latter a member of one of the expeditions, voluntarily agreed to eat nothing but meat for 1 year while they continued their usual activities in the temperate climate of New York.

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Crohn’s disease successfully treated with the paleolithic ketogenic diet

URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/306373055_Crohn’s_disease_successfully_treated_with_the_paleolithic_ketogenic_diet

International Journal of Case Reports and Images
 
Publication Date: 09/2016
 
Summary:
Here we report a severe case of Crohn’s disease where we successfully applied the paleolithic ketogenic diet. Dietary therapy resulted in resolution of symptoms, normalized laboratory parameters as well as gradual normalization of bowel inflammation as evidenced by imaging data and normalization of intestinal permeability as shown by the polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) challenge test. The patient was able to discontinue medication within two weeks. Currently, he is on the diet for 15 months and is free of symptoms as well as side effects.
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A child with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) successfully treated with the Paleolithic ketogenic diet: A 19-month insulin freedom

URL: http://www.ijcasereportsandimages.com/archive/2015/012-2015-ijcri/CR-10582-12-2015-toth/ijcri-1058212201582-toth-full-text.php

International Journal of Case Reports and Images

Publication Date: 12/2015

Summary: A nine-year-old child with T1DM who initially was on an insulin regime with high carbohydrate diet then was put on the Paleolithic ketogenic diet. Following dietary shift glucose levels normalized and he was able to discontinue insulin. No hypoglycemic episodes occurred on the diet and several other benefits were achieved including improved physical fitness, reduction of upper respiratory tract infections and eczema. Currently, he is on the diet for 19 months.

 

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Halted Progression of Soft Palate Cancer in a Patient Treated with the Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet Alone: A 20-months Follow-up

URL: http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajmcr/4/8/8/

American Journal of Medical Case Reports

Publication Date: 08/2016

Summary: Here we present a case with myoepithelial tumor of the soft palate where the patient denied conventional treatment options. Instead, the patient started the paleolithic ketogenic diet which resulted in a halted progression of the tumor as evidenced by imaging follow-up. Currently, the patient is on the diet for 20 months, without symptoms and side effects.

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Prolonged Meat Diets with a Study of Kidney Function and Ketosis

URL:http://www.jbc.org/content/87/3/651.full.pdf

Journal of Biological Chemistry

Publication Date: 02/1930

Summary: This publication reviews the metabolic effects of consuming a diet of only meat for 1 year.  Dr. Vilhjalmur Stefansson spent over 11 years in arctic exploration, during 9 years of which he lived almost exclusively on meat. Stimulated by this experience, Stefansson and Andersen, the latter a member of one of the expeditions, voluntarily agreed to eat nothing but meat for 1 year while they continued their usual activities in the temperate climate of New York.

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The carnivore connection: dietary carbohydrate in the evolution of NIDDM.

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7895958

Journal: Diabetologia.

 Publication Date: 12/1994

 Summary: We postulate a critical role for the quantity and quality of dietary carbohydrate in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Our primate ancestors ate a high-carbohydrate diet and the brain and reproductive tissues evolved a specific requirement for glucose as a source of fuel. But the Ice Ages which dominated the last two million years of human evolution brought a low-carbohydrate, high-protein diet. Certain metabolic adaptations were therefore necessary to accommodate the low glucose intake. Studies in both humans and experimental animals indicate that the adaptive (phenotypic) response to low-carbohydrate intake is insulin resistance. This provides the clue that insulin resistance is the mechanism for coping with a shortage of dietary glucose. We propose that the low-carbohydrate carnivorous diet would have disadvantaged reproduction in insulin-sensitive individuals and positively selected for individuals with insulin resistance. Natural selection would therefore result in a high proportion of people with genetically-determined insulin resistance. Other factors, such as geographic isolation, have contributed to further increases in the prevalence of the genotype in some population groups. Europeans may have a low incidence of diabetes because they were among the first to adopt agriculture and their diet has been high in carbohydrate for 10,000 years. The selection pressure for insulin resistance (i.e., a low-carbohydrate diet) was therefore relaxed much sooner in Caucasians than in other populations. Hence the prevalence of genes producing insulin resistance should be lower in the European population and any other group exposed to high-carbohydrate intake for a sufficiently long period of time.

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The ‘carnivore connection’ — evolutionary aspects of insulin resistance

URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/1601351

Journal: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

 Publication Date: 03/2002

 Summary: Insulin resistance is common and is determined by physiological (aging, physical fitness), pathological (obesity) and genetic factors. The metabolic compensatory response to insulin resistance is hyperinsulinaemia, the primary purpose of which is to maintain normal glucose tolerance. The ‘carnivore connection’ postulates a critical role for the quantity of dietary protein and carbohydrate and the change in the glycaemic index of dietary carbohydrate in the evolution of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia. Insulin resistance offered survival and reproductive advantages during the Ice Ages which dominated human evolution, during which a high-protein low-carbohydrate diet was consumed. Following the end of the last Ice Age and the advent of agriculture, dietary carbohydrate increased. Although this resulted in a sharp increase in the quantity of carbohydrate consumed, these traditional carbohydrate foods had a low glycaemic index and produced only modest increases in plasma insulin. The industrial revolution changed the quality of dietary carbohydrate. The milling of cereals made starch more digestible and postprandial glycaemic and insulin responses increased 2–3 fold compared with coarsely ground flour or whole grains. This combination of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia is a common feature of many modern day diseases. Over the last 50 y the explosion of convenience and takeaway ‘fast foods’ has exposed most populations to caloric intakes far in excess of daily energy requirements and the resulting obesity has been a major factor in increasing the prevalence of insulin resistance.

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Glycation, ageing and carnosine: Are carnivorous diets beneficial?

URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047637405001193

Journal: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

 Publication Date: 10/2005

 Summary: The possible beneficial effects of carnosine and related structures on protein carbonyl stress, AGE formation, secondary diabetic complications and age-related neuropathology are discussed.

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The paradoxical nature of hunter-gatherer diets: meat-based, yet non-atherogenic

URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/1601353

Journal: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 03/2002

 Summary: A review of the 20th centruy studies of hunter gatherer populations. HG consume approximately 65% of their calories from animal products. There is a low incidence of CVD in hunter gatherers