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Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial

URL: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/102/3/573/4564305

Journal: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 09/2015

Summary: Heart associations recommend limited intake of sat- urated fat. However, effects of saturated fat on low-density lipopro- tein (LDL)-cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk might depend on nutrients and specific saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in food.  We explored the effects of cheese and meat as sources of SFAs or isocaloric replacement with carbohydrates on blood lipids, lipoproteins, and fecal excretion of fat and bile acids. The study was a randomized, crossover, open-label in- tervention in 14 overweight postmenopausal women. Three full- diet periods of 2-wk duration were provided separated by 2-wk washout periods. The isocaloric diets were as follows: 1) a high- cheese (96–120-g) intervention [i.e., intervention containing cheese (CHEESE)], 2) a macronutrient-matched nondairy, high- meat control [i.e., nondairy control with a high content of high-fat processed and unprocessed meat in amounts matching the satu- rated fat content from cheese in the intervention containing cheese (MEAT)], and 3) a nondairy, low-fat, high-carbohydrate control (i.e., nondairy low-fat control in which the energy from cheese fat and protein was isocalorically replaced by carbohydrates and lean meat (CARB).  The CHEESE diet caused a 5% higher high-density lipo- protein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration (P = 0.012), an 8% higher apo A-I concentration (P , 0.001), and a 5% lower apoB:apo A-I ratio (P = 0.008) than did the CARB diet. Also, the MEAT diet caused an 8% higher HDL-cholesterol concentration (P , 0.001) and a 4% higher apo A-I concentration (P = 0.033) than did the CARB diet. Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apoB, and triacyl- glycerol were similar with the 3 diets. Fecal fat excretion was 1.8 and 0.9 g higher with the CHEESE diet than with CARB and MEAT diets (P , 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively) and 0.9 g higher with the MEAT diet than with the CARB diet (P = 0.005). CHEESE and MEAT diets caused higher fecal bile acid excretion than did the CARB diet (P , 0.05 and P = 0.006, respectively). The dominant type of bile acids excreted differed between CHEESE and MEAT diets.
Diets with cheese and meat as primary sources of SFAs cause higher HDL cholesterol and apo A-I and, therefore, appear to be less atherogenic than is a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. Also, our findings confirm that cheese increases fecal fat excretion.

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Cardiovascular disease in the masai

URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0368131964800417

Journal of Atherosclerosis Research

Publication Date: 07/1964

Summary: A field survey of 400 Masai men and additional women and children in Tanganyika indicates little or no clinical or chemical evidence for atherosclerosis. Despite a long continued diet of exclusively meat and milk the men have low levels of serum cholesterol and no evidence for arteriosclerotic heart disease. The reasons for this disagreement with the popular hypothesis relating animal fat intake to coronary disease are examined. The authors concede that some overriding protective mechanism such as freedom from emotional stress or abundance of physical exercise may be present. They favor the conclusion that diet fat is not responsible for coronary disease.

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Reduction of Red and Processed Meat Intake and Cancer Mortality and Incidence: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies

URL: https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2752321/reduction-red-processed-meat-intake-cancer-mortality-incidence-systematic-review

Journal: Annals of Internal Medicine

 Publication Date: 10/2019

Summary: The possible absolute effects of red and processed meat consumption on cancer mortality and incidence are very small, and the certainty of evidence is low to very low.

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Red and Processed Meat Consumption and Risk for All-Cause Mortality and Cardiometabolic Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies

URL: https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2752320/red-processed-meat-consumption-risk-all-cause-mortality-cardiometabolic-outcomes

Journal: Annals of Internal Medicine

 Publication Date: 10/2019

 Summary: The magnitude of association between red and processed meat consumption and all-cause mortality and adverse cardiometabolic outcomes is very small, and the evidence is of low certainty.

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Health-Related Values and Preferences Regarding Meat Consumption: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review

URL: https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2752323/health-related-values-preferences-regarding-meat-consumption-mixed-methods-systematic

Journal: Annals of Internal Medicine

 Publication Date: 10/2019

Summary: Low-certainty evidence suggests that omnivores are attached to meat and are unwilling to change this behavior when faced with potentially undesirable health effects.

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Effect of Lower Versus Higher Red Meat Intake on Cardiometabolic and Cancer Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials

URL: https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2752326/effect-lower-versus-higher-red-meat-intake-cardiometabolic-cancer-outcomes

Journal: Annals of Internal Medicine

Publication Date: 10/2019

 Summary: Low- to very-low-certainty evidence suggests that diets restricted in red meat may have little or no effect on major cardiometabolic outcomes and cancer mortality and incidence.

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Patterns of Red and Processed Meat Consumption and Risk for Cardiometabolic and Cancer Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies

URL: https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2752327/patterns-red-processed-meat-consumption-risk-cardiometabolic-cancer-outcomes-systematic

Journal: Annals of Internal Medicine

Publication Date: 10/2019

Summary: Low- or very-low-certainty evidence suggests that dietary patterns with less red and processed meat intake may result in very small reductions in adverse cardiometabolic and cancer outcomes.

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Coronary Heart Disease and Dietary Carbohydrate, Glycemic Index, and Glycemic Load: Dose-Response Meta-analyses of Prospective Cohort Studies

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410335/

Journal: Mayo Clinic Proceedings: Innovations, Quality and Outcomes.

 Publication Date: 03/2019

 Summary: Strong and probably causal CHD-GL and GI RRs exist within populations. The RRs were remarkably higher across global exposures. The results support the consideration of these markers of carbohydrate food quality in dietary guidelines for general populations.

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The effect of l-carnitine supplementation on lipid profile and glycaemic control in adults with cardiovascular risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials

URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S026156141930038X

Journal: Clinical Nutrition

 Publication Date: 02/2019

 Summary: This meta-analysis showed that l-carnitine supplementation could improve lipid profile levels, particularly in doses more than 1500 mg/day. More RCTs with large sample sizes, focusing on gut microbiome profiles and dietary patterns are needed to better understand the effect of l-carnitine on patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

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Omega-6 vegetable oils as a driver of coronary heart disease: the oxidized linoleic acid hypothesis

URL: https://openheart.bmj.com/content/5/2/e000898#ref-41

Journal: Open Heart

 Publication Date: 09/2018

 Summary: Numerous lines of evidence show that the omega-6 polyunsaturated fat linoleic acid promotes oxidative stress, oxidised LDL, chronic low-grade inflammation and atherosclerosis, and is likely a major dietary culprit for causing CHD, especially when consumed in the form of industrial seed oils commonly referred to as ‘vegetable oils’.