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Veganism, vegetarianism, bone mineral density, and fracture risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

URL: https://academic.oup.com/nutritionreviews/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/nutrit/nuy045/5146363?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Nutrition Reviews

Publication Date: 10/2018

Summary: The numbers of vegans and vegetarians have increased in the last decades. However, the impact of these diets on bone health is still under debate. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to study the impact of vegetarian and vegan diets on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. A systematic search was conducted of PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct, covering the period from the respective start date of each database to November 2017. Two investigators evaluated 275 studies against the inclusion criteria (original studies in humans, written in English or Spanish and including vegetarian or vegan diets and omnivorous diets as factors with BMD values for the whole body, lumbar spine, or femoral neck and/or the number of fractures as the outcome) and exclusion criteria (articles that did not include imaging or studies that included participants who had suffered a fracture before starting the vegetarian or vegan diet). The quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies was used to assess the quality of the studies. Twenty studies including 37 134 participants met the inclusion criteria. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians and vegans had lower BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine and vegans also had higher fracture rates. Vegetarian and vegan diets should be planned to avoid negative consequences on bone health.

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The Effects of a High-Protein Diet on Bone Mineral Density in Exercise-Trained Women: A 1-Year Investigation

URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2411-5142/3/4/62

Journal: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology

 Publication Date: 12/2018

 Summary: Exercise-trained female subjects that consume a diet that is approximately three times greater than the RDA for protein experience no harmful effects on bone mineral density or content. Nor were there any harmful effects on renal function.

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The Association Between Protein Intake by Source and Osteoporotic Fracture in Older Men: A Prospective Cohort Study

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27943394/

Journal: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

 Publication Date: 12/2016

Summary: Men with high protein intake (particularly high animal protein intake) as a percentage of TEI have a lower risk of major osteoporotic fracture

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Protective effect of high protein and calcium intake on the risk of hip fracture in the Framingham offspring cohort

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/20662074/

Journal: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

Publication Date: 12/2010

Summary: Middle-aged men and women show higher animal protein intake coupled with calcium intake of 800 mg/day or more may protect against hip fracture, whereas the effect appears reversed for those with lower calcium intake

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Acid diet (high-meat protein) effects on calcium metabolism and bone health

URL: https://journals.lww.com/co-clinicalnutrition/Abstract/2010/11000/Acid_diet__high_meat_protein__effects_on_calcium.16.aspx?fbclid=IwAR2j-8TzaKccuJsGygQfBrbJQo-l4XuVXzwJXs1Zea4h2Q12tiB31cesJaY

Journal: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

 Publication Date: 11/2010

Summary: Review of the effects of high meat protein diet on calcium metabolism and bone health. Long term high protein intake increases bone mineral density and reduces fractures.

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Acid diet (high-meat protein) effects on calcium metabolism and bone health

URL: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/pubag/downloadPDF.xhtml?id=58087&content=PDF

Journal: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care

 Publication Date: 01/2010

 Summary: On the basis of recent findings, consuming protein (including that from meat) higher than current Recommended Dietary Allowance for protein is beneficial to calcium utilization and bone health, especially in the elderly. A high-protein diet with adequate calcium and fruits and vegetables is important for bone health and osteoporosis 

prevention.

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Veganism and osteoporosis: A review of the current literature

URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1440-172X.2006.00580.x

Journal: Internation Journal of Nursing Practice

 Publication Date: 10/2006

 Summary: Review of the effects of a vegan diet on calcium, vitamin D and bone mineral density. Vegans have lower bone mineral density than non-Vegans. Evidence on calcium, vitamin D levels and fracture incidence was inconclusive

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Meat and soy protein affect calcium homeostasis in healthy women

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/16772455/

Journal: The Journal of Nutrition

 Publication Date: 07/2006

 Summary: These data indicate that when soy protein is substituted for meat protein, there is an acute decline in dietary calcium bioavailability.

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Dietary protein, calcium metabolism, and skeletal homeostasis revisited

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/12936953/

Journal: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 09/2003

 Summary: Dietary protein intakes at and below 0.8 g/kg were associated with a probable reduction in intestinal calcium absorption sufficient to cause secondary hyperparathyroidism. The long-term consequences of these low-protein diet–induced changes in mineral metabolism are not known, but the diet could be detrimental to skeletal health. Of concern are several recent epidemiologic studies that demonstrate reduced bone density and increased rates of bone loss in individuals habitually consuming low-protein diets. Studies are needed to determine whether low protein intakes directly affect rates of bone resorption, bone formation, or both.

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Controlled High Meat Diets Do Not Affect Calcium Retention or Indices of Bone Status in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

URL: https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/133/4/1020/4688165

Journal: Journal of Nutrition

 Publication Date: 04/2003

Summary: Calcium retention was measured in postmenopausal women on both a high meat and low meat diet. There was no significant difference in calcium retention beween diets