Bone health

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The Effect of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets on Pain in Individuals with Knee Osteoarthritis

URL: https://academic.oup.com/painmedicine/article-abstract/21/1/150/5380130?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Journal: Pain Medicine

Publication Date: 01/2020

Summary: Osteoarthritis is the most prominent form of arthritis, affecting approximately 15% of the population in the United States. Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) has become one of the leading causes of disability in older adults. Besides knee replacement, there are no curative treatments for KOA, so persistent pain is commonly treated with opioids, acetaminophen, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, these drugs have many unpleasant side effects, so there is a need for alternative forms of pain management. We sought to test the efficacy of a dietary inter- vention to reduce KOA. A randomized controlled pilot study to test the efficacy of two dietary interventions. Subjects. Adults 65–75 years of age with KOA. Participants were asked to follow one of two dietary interventions (low-carbohydrate [LCD], low-fat [LFD]) or continue to eat as usual (control [CTRL]) over 12 weeks. Functional pain, self-reported pain, quality of life, and depression were assessed every three weeks. Serum from before and af- ter the diet intervention was analyzed for oxidative stress. Over a period of 12 weeks, the LCD reduced pain intensity and unpleasantness in some functional pain tasks, as well as self-reported pain, compared with the LFD and CTRL. The LCD also significantly reduced oxidative stress and the adipokine leptin compared with the LFD and CTRL. Reduction in oxidative stress was related to reduced functional pain. We present evidence suggesting that oxidative stress may be related to functional pain, and lowering it through our LCD intervention could provide relief from pain and be an opioid alternative.

Veganism, vegetarianism, bone mineral density, and fracture risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

URL: https://academic.oup.com/nutritionreviews/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/nutrit/nuy045/5146363?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Nutrition Reviews

Publication Date: 10/2018

Summary: The numbers of vegans and vegetarians have increased in the last decades. However, the impact of these diets on bone health is still under debate. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to study the impact of vegetarian and vegan diets on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk. A systematic search was conducted of PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct, covering the period from the respective start date of each database to November 2017. Two investigators evaluated 275 studies against the inclusion criteria (original studies in humans, written in English or Spanish and including vegetarian or vegan diets and omnivorous diets as factors with BMD values for the whole body, lumbar spine, or femoral neck and/or the number of fractures as the outcome) and exclusion criteria (articles that did not include imaging or studies that included participants who had suffered a fracture before starting the vegetarian or vegan diet). The quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies was used to assess the quality of the studies. Twenty studies including 37 134 participants met the inclusion criteria. Compared with omnivores, vegetarians and vegans had lower BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine and vegans also had higher fracture rates. Vegetarian and vegan diets should be planned to avoid negative consequences on bone health.

The Effects of a High-Protein Diet on Bone Mineral Density in Exercise-Trained Women: A 1-Year Investigation

URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2411-5142/3/4/62

Journal: Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology

 Publication Date: 12/2018

 Summary: Exercise-trained female subjects that consume a diet that is approximately three times greater than the RDA for protein experience no harmful effects on bone mineral density or content. Nor were there any harmful effects on renal function.

Acid diet (high-meat protein) effects on calcium metabolism and bone health

URL: https://journals.lww.com/co-clinicalnutrition/Abstract/2010/11000/Acid_diet__high_meat_protein__effects_on_calcium.16.aspx?fbclid=IwAR2j-8TzaKccuJsGygQfBrbJQo-l4XuVXzwJXs1Zea4h2Q12tiB31cesJaY Journal: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care  Publication Date: 11/2010 Summary: Review of the effects of high meat protein diet on calcium metabolism and bone health. Long term high protein intake increases bone mineral density and reduces fractures.

Acid diet (high-meat protein) effects on calcium metabolism and bone health

URL: https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/pubag/downloadPDF.xhtml?id=58087&content=PDF Journal: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care  Publication Date: 01/2010  Summary: On the basis of recent findings, consuming protein (including that from meat) higher than current Recommended Dietary Allowance for protein is beneficial to calcium utilization and bone health, especially in the elderly. A high-protein diet with adequate calcium and fruits and vegetables is important for bone health and osteoporosis  prevention.

Dietary protein, calcium metabolism, and skeletal homeostasis revisited

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/12936953/ Journal: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Publication Date: 09/2003  Summary: Dietary protein intakes at and below 0.8 g/kg were associated with a probable reduction in intestinal calcium absorption sufficient to cause secondary hyperparathyroidism. The long-term consequences of these low-protein diet–induced changes in mineral metabolism are not known, but the diet could be detrimental to skeletal health. Of concern are several recent epidemiologic studies that demonstrate reduced bone density and increased rates of bone loss in individuals habitually consuming low-protein diets. Studies are needed to determine whether low protein intakes directly affect rates of bone resorption, bone formation, or both.

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