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Effects of an omnivorous diet compared with a lactoovovegetarian diet on resistance-training-induced changes in body composition and skeletal muscle in older men

URL: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/70/6/1032/4729141

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 12/1999

Summary: Very limited data suggest that meat consumption by older people may promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training (RT). The objective of this study was to assess whether the consumption of an omnivorous (meat-containing) diet would influence RT-induced changes in whole-body composition and skeletal muscle size in older men compared with a lactoovovegetarian (LOV) (meat-free) diet. Nineteen men aged 51–69 y participated in the study. During a 12-wk period of RT, 9 men consumed their habitual omnivorous diets, which provided ≈50% of total dietary protein from meat sources (beef, poultry, pork, and fish) (mixed-diet group). Another 10 men were counseled to self-select an LOV diet (LOV-diet group). Maximal strength of the upper- and lower-body muscle groups that were exercised during RT increased by 10–38% (P < 0.001), independent of diet. The RT-induced changes in whole-body composition and skeletal muscle size differed significantly between the mixed- and LOV-diet groups (time-by-group interactions, P < 0.05). With RT, whole-body density, fat-free mass, and whole-body muscle mass increased in the mixed diet group but decreased in the LOV- diet group. Type II muscle fiber area of the vastus lateralis muscle increased with RT for all men combined (P < 0.01), and the increase tended to be greater in the mixed-diet group (16.2 ± 4.4 %) than in the LOV diet group (7.3 ± 5.1%). Type I fiber area was unchanged with RT in both diet groups. Consumption of a meat-containing diet contributed to greater gains in fat-free mass and skeletal muscle mass with RT in older men than did an LOV diet.

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Protein and muscle health during aging: benefits and concerns related to animal-based protein

URL: https://academic.oup.com/af/article/9/4/12/5575464

Animal Frontiers

Publication Date: 9/2019

Summary: Individuals aged at least 65 years are a fast-growing segment of the population. Age-related loss of muscle mass and strength will continue to have a significant economic impact unless dietary or exercise interventions are implemented. Increasing the ratio of animal-based protein relative to plant-based protein in the diet may help to mitigate age-related losses of muscle mass and strength. Animal-based protein sources, especially those that are lean or nutrient dense, are the most anabolic per gram. Additional health and environmental considerations are needed prior to increasing animal-based protein intake recommendations in the United States and globally.

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Dietary meat and protection against sarcopenia

URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0309174018305187

Journal: Meat Science

 Publication Date: 10/2018

Summary: nutritive strategies of relevance for sarcopenia involve fortifying the nutrient value of different meats. Studies on muscle cells and animal models of muscle wasting, have identified the therapeutic potential of the amino acid, glycine, to reduce inflammation, attenuate muscle atrophy, and re-sensitize muscle to anabolic stimuli. Glycine supplementation or feeding animal products with a high glycine content (e.g. gelatin), could represent simple and effective nutritional strategies as part of a suite of therapies to attenuate sarcopenia.

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Association between hyperinsulinemia and increased risk of cancer death in non-obese and obese people: A population‐based observational study

URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ijc.30729

Journal: Cancer Epidemiology

Publication Date: 08/2017

Summary: Review of NHANES database. Among all study participants, cancer mortality was significantly higher in those with hyperinsulinemia than in those without hyperinsulinemia. Similarly, among non-obese participants, multivariable analysis showed that cancer mortality was significantly higher in those with hyperinsulinemia than in those without.

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The association of lean and fat mass with all-cause mortality in older adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study

URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0939475316301016

Journal: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases

 Publication Date: 11/2016

 Summary: Greater lean tissue mass is associated with improved cardiovascular and overall mortality in the elderly. The lowest levels of fat tissue mass are linked with adverse prognosis, but the highest levels show no significant mortality protection. Prevention efforts in the elderly frail may be best targeted toward improvements in lean muscle mass.

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A High Protein Diet Has No Harmful Effects: A One-Year Crossover Study in Resistance-Trained Males

URL: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnme/2016/9104792/

Journal: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism

 Publication Date: 09/2016

Summary: In male subjects with several years of experience with resistance training, chronic consumption of a diet high in protein had no harmful effects on any measures of health. Furthermore, there was no change in body weight, fat mass, or lean body mass despite eating more total calories and protein.

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Higher Protein Intake Is Associated with Higher Lean Mass and Quadriceps Muscle Strength in Adult Men and Women

URL: https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/145/7/1569/4616773

Journal: The Journal of Nutrition

Publication Date: 07/2015

 Summary: Our findings suggest that maintaining adequate protein intake with age may help preserve muscle mass and strength in adult men and women. Dietary protein types may differentially affect muscle mass and strength. Whether PP is a marker of dietary quality or has a direct effect on muscle strength (independent of lean mass) needs to be further clarified.

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The Skeletal Muscle Anabolic Response to Plant- versus Animal-Based Protein Consumption

URL: https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/145/9/1981/4585688

Journal: Journal of Nutrition

Publication Date: 09/2015

Summary: A review of the muscle protein synthesis response to ingestion of various protein forms. Plant based proteins show lower MPS when compared to animal based protein sources

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Role of taurine in the pathogenesis of obesity

URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/mnfr.201500067

Journal: Molecular Nutrition and Food Research

Publication Date: 03/2015

 Summary: In this review, I summarize the effects of taurine on the progression of obesity in animal models and humans. Furthermore, I discuss possible mechanisms underlying the antiobesity effects of taurine.

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Muscle Mass Index as a Predictor of Longevity in Older-Adults

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4035379/

Journal: American Journal of Medicine

Publication Date: 06/2014

Summary: This study demonstrates the survival predication ability of relative muscle mass and highlights the need to look beyond total body mass in assessing the health of older adults.