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Effects of an omnivorous diet compared with a lactoovovegetarian diet on resistance-training-induced changes in body composition and skeletal muscle in older men

URL: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/70/6/1032/4729141

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 12/1999

Summary: Very limited data suggest that meat consumption by older people may promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training (RT). The objective of this study was to assess whether the consumption of an omnivorous (meat-containing) diet would influence RT-induced changes in whole-body composition and skeletal muscle size in older men compared with a lactoovovegetarian (LOV) (meat-free) diet. Nineteen men aged 51–69 y participated in the study. During a 12-wk period of RT, 9 men consumed their habitual omnivorous diets, which provided ≈50% of total dietary protein from meat sources (beef, poultry, pork, and fish) (mixed-diet group). Another 10 men were counseled to self-select an LOV diet (LOV-diet group). Maximal strength of the upper- and lower-body muscle groups that were exercised during RT increased by 10–38% (P < 0.001), independent of diet. The RT-induced changes in whole-body composition and skeletal muscle size differed significantly between the mixed- and LOV-diet groups (time-by-group interactions, P < 0.05). With RT, whole-body density, fat-free mass, and whole-body muscle mass increased in the mixed diet group but decreased in the LOV- diet group. Type II muscle fiber area of the vastus lateralis muscle increased with RT for all men combined (P < 0.01), and the increase tended to be greater in the mixed-diet group (16.2 ± 4.4 %) than in the LOV diet group (7.3 ± 5.1%). Type I fiber area was unchanged with RT in both diet groups. Consumption of a meat-containing diet contributed to greater gains in fat-free mass and skeletal muscle mass with RT in older men than did an LOV diet.

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The relationship between peripheral blood mononuclear cells telomere length and diet – unexpected effect of red meat

URL: https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s12937-016-0189-2

Nutrition Journal

Publication Date: 07/2016

Summary: Repeated nucleotide sequences combined with proteins called telomeres cover chromosome ends and dictate cells lifespan. Many factors can modify telomere length, among them are: nutrition and smoking habits, physical activities and socioeconomic status measured by education level.
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of above mentioned factors on peripheral blood mononuclear cells telomere length.  Study included 28 subjects (seven male and 21 female, age 18–65 years.), smokers and non-smokers without any serious health problems in past and present. Following a basic medical examination, patients completed the food frequency questionnaire with 17 foods and beverages most common groups and gave blood for testing. PBMC telomere length were measured with qualitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rtPCR) method and expressed as a T/S ratio.  Among nine food types (cereal, fruits, vegetables, diary, red meat, poultry, fish, sweets and salty snacks) and eight beverages (juices, coffee, tea, mineral water, alcoholic- and sweetened carbonated beverages) only intake of red meat was related to T/S ratio. Individuals with increased consumption of red meat have had higher T/S ratio and the strongest significant differences were observed between consumer groups: “never” and “1–2 daily” (p = 0.02). Smoking habits, physical activity, LDL and HDL concentrations, and education level were not related to telomere length, directly or as a covariates.  Unexpected correlation of telomere length with the frequency of consumption of red meat indicates the need for further in-depth research and may undermine some accepted concepts of adverse effects of this diet on the health status and life longevity.

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Glycation, ageing and carnosine: Are carnivorous diets beneficial?

URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047637405001193

Journal: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development

 Publication Date: 10/2005

 Summary: Non-enzymic protein glycosylation (glycation) plays important roles in ageing and in diabetes and its secondary complications. Dietary constituents may play important roles in accelerating or suppressing glycation. It is suggested that carnivorous diets contain a potential anti-glycating agent, carnosine (β-alanyl-histidine), whilst vegetarians may lack intake of the dipeptide. The possible beneficial effects of carnosine and related structures on protein carbonyl stress, AGE formation, secondary diabetic complications and age-related neuropathology are discussed.

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Would Carnosine or a Carnivorous Diet Help Suppress Aging and Associated Pathologies?

URL: https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1196/annals.1354.052

Journal: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

 Publication Date: 05/2006

 Summary: Carnosine has the potential to suppress many of the biochemical changes (e.g., protein oxidation, glycation, AGE formation, and cross‐linking) that accompany aging and associated pathologies. Glycation, generation of advanced glycosylation end‐products (AGEs), and formation of protein carbonyl groups play important roles in aging, diabetes, its secondary complications, and neurodegenerative conditions. It is suggested that carnivorous diets could be beneficial because of their carnosine content, as the dipeptide has been shown to suppress some diabetic complications in mice. It is also suggested that carnosine’s therapeutic potential should be explored with respect to neurodegeneration.

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The Association Between Protein Intake by Source and Osteoporotic Fracture in Older Men: A Prospective Cohort Study

URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/27943394/

Journal: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

 Publication Date: 12/2016

Summary: Men with high protein intake (particularly high animal protein intake) as a percentage of TEI have a lower risk of major osteoporotic fracture

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The association of lean and fat mass with all-cause mortality in older adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study

URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0939475316301016

Journal: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases

 Publication Date: 11/2016

 Summary: Greater lean tissue mass is associated with improved cardiovascular and overall mortality in the elderly. The lowest levels of fat tissue mass are linked with adverse prognosis, but the highest levels show no significant mortality protection. Prevention efforts in the elderly frail may be best targeted toward improvements in lean muscle mass.

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Red meat consumption and healthy ageing: A review

URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0378512215300785

Journal: Maturitas

 Publication Date: 02/2016

Summary: Review of relationship of meat intake and ageing. Despite warnings by the WHO against meat intake, there is not sufficient evidence linking meat intake, especially fresh meat intake to negative health outcomes

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Protein-enriched diet, with the use of lean red meat, combined with progressive resistance training enhances lean tissue mass and muscle strength and reduces circulating IL-6 concentrations in elderly women: a cluster randomized controlled trial

URL: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/99/4/899/4637870

Journal: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

Publication Date: 04/2014

Summary: 100 elderly women were randomized to a high protein diet supplemented with lean red meat combined with progressive resistance training versus progressive resistance training with a control diet. Lean tissue mass and strenghth increased more in the meat supplemented group. IGF-1 increase more and IL-6 decreased more in the meat supplemented group

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Midlife muscle strength and human longevity up to age 100 years: a 44-year prospective study among a decedent cohort

URL: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11357-011-9256-y

Journal: Age

 Publication Date: 06/2012

 Summary: We studied prospectively the midlife handgrip strength, living habits, and parents’ longevity as predictors of length of life up to becoming a centenarian. The participants were 2,239 men from the Honolulu Heart Program/Honolulu–Asia Aging Study who were born before the end of June 1909 and who took part in baseline physical assessment in 1965–1968, when they were 56–68 years old.High midlife grip strength and long-lived mother may indicate resilience to aging, which, combined with healthy lifestyle, increases the probability of extreme longevity.